http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Luminousflux
0
0
Luminous flux
Luminous Flux or Luminous Power is the measure of the perceived power of light. It differs from radiant flux, the measure of the total power of light emitted, in that luminous flux is adjusted to reflect the varying sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light.
0
U1J1
1
QUDT
0
0
Lumen (lm)
0
Photometry
0
0
Space and Time
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Solidangle
0
Steradian (sr)
1
The solid angle subtended by a surface S is defined as the surface area of a unit sphere covered by the surface S's projection onto the sphere. A solid angle is related to the surface of a sphere in the same way an ordinary angle is related to the circumference of a circle. Since the total surface area of the unit sphere is 4*pi, the measure of solid angle will always be between 0 and 4*pi.
QUDT
0
0
0
U1
Solid angle
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ThermodynamicTemperature
Base Quantity
0
?1
0
QUDT
Kelvin (K)
0
0
1
A temperature is a numerical measure of hot and cold. Its measurement is by detection of heat radiation or particle velocity or kinetic energy, or by the bulk behavior of a thermometric material. It may be calibrated in any of various temperature scales, Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc. The fundamental physical definition of temperature is provided by thermodynamics.
Temperature
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#RadiantIntensityUnit
Radiology
U-1L2M1T-3
Radiant Intensity
2
Watt per steradian (W/sr)
QUDT
0
0
-1
1
Radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit solid angle. This is a directional quantity. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiant_intensity]
-3
0
0
Kilogram kelvin (kg-K)
0
Mass temperature
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Masstemperature
QUDT
0
0
Thermodynamics
1
M1?1
1
1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Salinity
0
0
Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistryof natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. The use of electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the ionic content of seawater led to the development of the so-called practical salinity scale 1978 (PSS-78). Salinities measured using PSS-78 do not have units. The 'unit' of PSU (denoting practical salinity unit) is sometimes added to PSS-78 measurements, however this is officially discouraged.
0
Salinity
Wikipedia
0
U1
Practical salinity units (PSU)
Chemistry
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Lengthperunitmagneticflux
-1
0
QUDT
L-1M-1T2I1
2
0
-1
Length per magnetic flux
per Tesla Meter
1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Gram_per_litre
0
L-3M1
Kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m^3)
-3
Concentration or density mass per volume
0
0
1
The mass of one substance per unit volume of another substance. These units are commonly used in both density and concentration measurements
Chemistry
Wikipedia
0
0
L2M1T-3I-2
Electrical resistance
Wikipedia
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistance_and_conductance
1
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
2
Ohm (Ohm)
Electrical resistance is a ratio of the degree to which an object opposes an electric current through it, measured in ohms. Its reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in siemens.
-3
0
-2
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Specificvolume
0
0
Specific volume
Mechanics
Specific volume (?) is the volume occupied by a unit of mass of a material. It is equal to the inverse of density.
meter cubed per kg
L3M-1
0
0
0
3
-1
Mechanics
Micromoles per square meter per second (umol/m^2 s)
Areal flux is the rate of flow of mass across a unit area per time
-1
1
-2
Areal flux
0
0
-1
1
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid permeance
Permeance is closely related to permeability, but it refers to the extent of penetration of a specific object with given thickness by a liquid or a gas. It is the degee to which a materal or membrane transmits another substance. Units of permeance are volumetric output per unit membrane area per unit trans-membrane pressure. Permeance is also referred to as pressure-normalized flux.
0
0
Kilograms per pascal per second per meter squared
Wikipedia
0
L-1T1
0
-4
0
UCUM
Pascal seconds per cubic metre (Pa·s/m³)
Fluid Mechanics
L-4M1T-1
-1
0
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_%28physics%29]
1
Fluid resistance
http://unitsofmeasure.org/ucum.html#para-44
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#ElectricFluxDensityUnit
0
Electricity and Magnetism
Electrical flux density
1
-2
L-2T1I1
1
0
QUDT
0
In physics, the electric flux density (or electric displacement field), denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations. It accounts for the effects of free and bound charge within materials. "D" stands for "displacement", as in the related concept of displacement current in dielectrics. In free space, the electric displacement field is equivalent to flux density, a concept that lends understanding to Gauss's law.
Coulomb per Square Meter (C/m^2)
Thermal conductivity
-1
Thermodynamics
In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, ?, or ?) is the property of a material to conduct heat. Thermal conductivity of materials is temperature dependent. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity.
-3
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Thermalconductivity
Watt per meter kelvin (W/(m*K))
QUDT
0
L1M1T-3?-1
1
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#PowerPerAreaQuarticTemperature
Power per area quartic temperature
-4
QUDT
1
-3
0
0
Thermodynamics
0
Watt per Square Meter Quartic Kelvin
The units of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The Stefan–Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a black body across all wavelengths per unit time (also known as the black-body radiant exitance or emissive power), j*, is directly proportional to the fourth power of the black body's thermodynamic temperature. The constant of proportionality ?, called the Stefan–Boltzmann constant or Stefan's constant, derives from other known constants of nature. The value of the constant is5.670373 x 10^8 Wm^-2K^-4. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan%E2%80%93Boltzmann_constant]
M1T-3?-4
0
Molar angular momentum
Chemistry
0
Joule Second per Mole
-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#MolarAngularMomentum
0
The angular momentum per mole of substance. Used for measuring electron orbitals.
0
QUDT
1
-1
2
L2M1T-1N-1
Electrical flux
QUDT
The Electric Flux through an area is defined as the electric field multiplied by the area of the surface projected in a plane perpendicular to the field. Electric Flux is a scalar-valued quantity.
0
L3M1T-3I-1
1
-1
-3
Volt Meter (Vm)
Electricity and Magnetism
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ElectricFlux
3
0
1
0
0
Magnetic Flux Per Unit Length
1
L1M1T-2I-1
0
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
Tesla Meter
Magnetic flux per length
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Magneticfluxperunitlength
-2
-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Gravitationalattraction
QUDT
Gravitational attraction
-1
L3M-1T-2
Cubic meter per kilogram second squared (m^3/(kg-s^2))
Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things attract one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles. Gravity is responsible for the formation of the universe (e.g. creating spheres of hydrogen, igniting them under pressure to form stars and grouping them in to galaxies). Without gravity, the universe would be without thermal energy and composed only of equally spaced particles. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the tides. Gravity has an infinite range, and it cannot be absorbed, transformed, or shielded against. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity]
3
Mechanics
-2
0
0
0
0
Electrical dipole moment
1
Electricity and Magnetism
L1T1I1
0
0
0
In physics, the electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges in a system of electric charges, that is, a measure of the charge system's overall polarity. The SI units are Coulomb-meter (C m). [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_dipole_moment]
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ElectricDipoleMoment
0
Coulomb meter (C-m)
1
1
QUDT
7
-1
0
QUDT
Hyperpolarizability
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#CubicElectricDipoleMomentPerSquareEnergy
Cubic Coulomb Cubic Meter Per Square Joule (C3-m3/J2)
0
L-1M-2T7I3
Electricity and Magnetism
3
The hyperpolarizability, a nonlinear-optical property of a molecule, is the second-order electric susceptibility per unit volume. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperpolarizability]
-2
http://dbpedia.org/page/Hyperpolarizability
0
0
QUDT
0
Energy per area
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Energyperarea
M1T-2
Energy per area density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit area. Has the same dimensionality as force per unit length.
0
1
Joule per square meter (J/m^2)
0
-2
Mechanics
0
Chemistry
0
In physics and engineering, mass flux is the rate of mass flow per unit area, perfectly overlapping with the momentum density, the momentum per unit volume. The common symbols are j, J, q, Q, ?, or ? (Greek lower or capital Phi), sometimes with subscript m to indicate mass is the flowing quantity. Its SI units are kg s?1 m?2. Mass flux can also refer to an alternate form of flux in Fick's law that includes the molecular mass, or in Darcy's law that includes the mass density. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_flux]
Mass flux
1
-1
kilograms per meter squared per second (kg/m^2s)
L-2M1T-1
0
-2
0
CUAHSI
1
0
Magnetomotive force
Electricity and Magnetism
0
0
QUDT
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#MagnetomotiveForceUnit
Ampere Turn (At)
0
1
U1I1
Magnetomotive force is any physical cause that produces magnetic flux. In other words, it is a field of magnetism (measured in tesla) that has area (measured in square meters), so that (Tesla)(Area)= Flux. It is analogous to electromotive force or voltage in electricity. MMF usually describes electric wire coils in a way so scientists can measure or predict the actual force a wire coil can generate. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetomotive_force]
meters cubed per second per meter squared (m^3/s*m^2)
0
0
Has identical dimensionality to linear velocity, but is expressed differently.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Volumetric_flux
In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flux is the rate of volume flow across a unit area (m3·s?1·m?2). Volumetric flux = liters/(second*area). The density of a particular property in a fluid's volume, multiplied with the volumetric flux of the fluid, thus defines the advective flux of that property. The volumetric flux through a porous medium is often modelled using Darcy's law. Volumetric flux is not to be confused with volumetric flow rate, which is the volume of fluid that passes through a given surface per unit of time (as opposed to a unit surface). [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flux] Also used for hydraulic conductivity.
0
L1T-1
Mechanics
0
Wikipedia
1
-1
Volumetric flux
0
M-1T1I1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalchargepermass
Coulomb per kilogram (C/kg)
0
0
Electrical charge per mass
Unit group for radiation exposure and gyromagnetic ratios
1
0
-1
QUDT
Electricity and Magnetism
0
1
ODM2 Working Group
ODM2 Units Type Controlled Vocabulary
A vocabulary for describing the type of the Unit or the more general quantity that the Unit represents.
0
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity is the measure of the resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a medium. In other words, permittivity is a measure of how an electric field affects, and is affected by, a dielectric medium. The permittivity of a medium describes how much electric field (more correctly, flux) is 'generated' per unit charge in that medium. More electric flux exists in a medium with a low permittivity (per unit charge) because of polarization effects. Permittivity is directly related to electric susceptibility, which is a measure of how easily a dielectric polarizes in response to an electric field. Thus, permittivity relates to a material's ability to resist an electric field and "permit" is a misnomer. In SI units, permittivity ? is measured in farads per meter (F/m)
-3
QUDT
Farad per meter (F/m)
4
Electricity and Magnetism
0
L-3M-1T4I2
Electrical permittivity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Permittivity
2
-1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#EnergyPerAreaElectricCharge
QUDT
-1
-3
0
Volt per Square Meter
1
Electricity and Magnetism
Energy per area electrical charge
M1T-3I-1
0
0
0
Magnetic current density?
M1T-1
Also known as loading.
Kilogram per second (kg/s)
0
1
0
0
0
0
In physics and engineering, mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes per unit of time. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_flow_rate]
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Masspertime
QUDT
Mechanics
Mass per time
-1
L2T-3
Absorbed dose per unit time.
0
Absorbed dose rate
Radiology
0
-3
QUDT
0
2
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AbsorbedDoseRate
0
0
Gray per second (Gy/s)
0
For stable isotopes, isotope ratios are typically reported using the delta (?) notation where ? represents the ratio of heavy isotope to light isotope in the sample over the same ratio of a standard reference material, reported using units of in "per mil" (‰, parts per thousand) and reported relative to the specific standard reference material.
Per Mille (‰; per mil) relative to a standard reference material
0
0
U1
0
Chemistry
0
Stable isotope delta
0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotope_geochemistry#Stable_isotope_geochemistry
Wikipedia
1
0
Base Quantity
0
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AmountOfSubstance
0
0
Count
Mole (mol)
0
0
QUDT
N1
Count or amount of substance is a standards-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles. It is a macroscopic property and it is sometimes referred to as chemical amount. The International System of Units (SI) defines the amount of substance to be proportional to the number of elementary entities present. The SI unit for amount of substance is the mole. It has the unit symbol mol.
-2
QUDT
0
2
0
Electrical current per energy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalcurrentperunitenergy
Ampere per Joule (A/J)
Electricity and Magnetism
0
1
-1
L-2M-1T2I1
Has identical dimensionality to Inverse Magnetic Flux
2
1
0
The units of angular mass have dimensions of mass * area. They are used to measure the moment of inertia or rotational inertia.
Angular mass
0
Space and Time
0
QUDT
0
L2M1
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#AngularMassUnit
Kilogram Meter Squared (kg-m^2)
Chemistry
0
-1
Amount of substance or a count/number of items per unit mass. This is most often called molality or molal concentration. This contrasts with the definition of molarity which is based on a specified volume of solution. A commonly used unit for molality used in chemistry is mol/kg. A solution of concentration 1 mol/kg is also sometimes denoted as 1 molal.
1
molal (moles per kg)
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AmountOfSubstancePerUnitMass; http://dbpedia.org/page/Molality
0
0
0
M-1N1
0
Concentration count per mass
0
Wikipedia
g/kg
0
0
Mass fraction
M1M-1
0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Mass_fraction_(chemistry)
0
0
0
In chemistry, the mass fraction is the ratio of one substance with mass to the mass of the total mixture , defined asThe sum of all the mass fractions is equal to 1:Mass fraction can also be expressed, with a denominator of 100, as percentage by weight (wt%). It is one way of expressing the composition of a mixture in a dimensionless size; mole fraction (percentage by moles, mol%) and volume fraction (percentage by volume, vol%) are others. For elemental analysis, mass fraction (or "mass percent composition") can also refer to the ratio of the mass of one element to the total mass of a compound. It can be calculated for any compound using its empirical formula. or its chemical formula
Dimensionless Ratio
T-1N1
1
Katal (kat)
Chemistry
Catalytic activity
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#CatalyticActivity
0
0
QUDT
0
Uses units that are similar, if not identical, to particle loading. Both have the same dimensionality.
-1
0
Catalytic activity is usually denoted by the symbol z and measured in mol/s, a unit which was called katal and defined the SI unit for catalytic activity since 1999. Catalytic activity is not a kind of reaction rate, but a property of the catalyst under certain conditions, in relation to a specific chemical reaction. Catalytic activity of one katal (Symbol 1 kat = 1mol/s) of a catalyst means an amount of that catalyst (substance, in Mol) that leads to a net reaction of one Mol per second of the reactants to the resulting reagents or other outcome which was intended for this chemical reaction. A catalyst may and usually will have different catalytic activity for distinct reactions. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalysis]
0
0
UCUM
Level
http://unitsofmeasure.org/ucum.html#para-46
0
0
Decibel (Db)
Dimensionless Ratio
0
0
"Psuedo Units" defined from a log ratio. This includes any number of units like deciBels where the unit is derived as a log ratio of two other units. The logarithm distinguishes these from other dimensionless ratios.
"Psuedo Units" defined from a log ratio
0
Mole kelvin (mol-K)
1
Temperature count
?1N1
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#AmountOfSubstanceTemperatureUnit
0
0
0
0
Thermodynamics
QUDT
1
0
Energy per square magnetic flux density
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#EnergyPerSquareMagneticFluxDensity
2
Electricity and Magnetism
L2M-1T2I1
2
1
0
-1
0
Joule per Square Tesla (J/T^2)
-2
-1
L-2T-1N1
0
moles per meter squared per second
0
CUAHSI
1
Particle flux
0
Chemistry
0
The number of particles, organisms, or moles of substance going through a specific area in a given amount of time.
Pascal second (Pa-s)
0
Dynamic viscosity
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Dynamicviscosity
The dynamic (shear) viscosity of a fluid expresses its resistance to shearing flows, where adjacent layers move parallel to each other with different speeds. Both the physical unit of dynamic viscosity in SI Poiseuille (Pl) and the cgs units Poise (P) come from Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille. The poiseuille, which is never used, is equivalent to the pascal-second (Pa·s), or (N·s)/m2, or kg/(m·s).
L-1M1T-1
Also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity#Dynamic_viscosity_.CE.BC
-1
Fluid Mechanics
0
0
-1
0
QUDT
-2
3
-1
Thermal resistance
0
Kelvin per watt (K/W)
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. (Absolute) thermal resistance R in K/W is a property of a particular component. For example, a characteristic of a heat sink. Specific thermal resistance or specific thermal resistivity R? in (K·m)/W is a material constant.
0
Wikipedia
Thermodynamics
1
L-2M-1T3?1
0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Thermal_resistance
Joule meter
1
0
-2
0
L3M1T-2
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Lengthenergy; http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ThermalEnergyLength
Length energy
0
QUDT
redundant with thermalEnergyLength
3
Mechanics
2
QUDT
1
0
Thermodynamics
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AreaTimeTemperature
Area time temperature
L2T1?1
1
0
0
Square Meter Second Kelvin
Inverse length temperature
-1
0
0
-1
Thermodynamics
0
0
L-1?-1
QUDT
0
per meter Kelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inverselengthtemperature
QUDT
Mechanics
0
0
Cubic Meter per Second Squared
-2
0
L3T-2
0
3
In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter ? of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_gravitational_parameter]
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Standard_gravitational_parameter>
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#StandardGravitationalParameter
0
Standard gravitational parameter
1
http://unitsofmeasure.org/ucum.html#para-48
0
0
UCUM
0
U1
Amount of Information
Information
Bit
0
0
In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels. In information theory, units of information are also used to measure the information contents or entropy of random variables.
0
3
Cubic meter per kelvin (m^3/K)
L3?-1
0
0
-1
When the temperature of a substance changes, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. When the stored energy increases, so does the length of the molecular bonds. As a result, solids typically expand in response to heating and contract on cooling; this dimensional response to temperature change is expressed by its coefficient of thermal expansion. Different coefficients of thermal expansion can be defined for a substance depending on whether the expansion is measured by: * linear thermal expansion * area thermal expansion * volumetric thermal expansion These characteristics are closely related. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be defined for both liquids and solids. The linear thermal expansion can only be defined for solids, and is common in engineering applications. Some substances expand when cooled, such as freezing water, so they have negative thermal expansion coefficients.
Thermodynamics
0
0
Volume thermal expansion
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Volumethermalexpansion
0
Moles per second per kilogram (mol/s*kg)
0
CUAHSI
-1
0
0
Chemistry
1
Mass normalized particle loading
0
-1
The number of particles or organisms per unit time per unit mass.
M-1T-1N1
Angle
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Angle
0
U1
0
In geometry, an angle (or plane angle) is the figure formed by two rays or line segments, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other.
0
1
Space and Time
Radian (rad)
0
0
0
-4
Inverse permittivity
QUDT
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversepermittivity
0
Meter per farad (m/F)
3
0
-2
Electricity and Magnetism
0
L3M1T-4I-2
Length
0
Base Quantity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Length
0
0
In the International System of Quantities, length is any quantity with dimension distance. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Length]
QUDT
0
meter (m)
0
0
L1
1
QUDT
0
0
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. The repetition of the events may be periodic (i.e. the length of time between event repetitions is fixed) or aperiodic (i.e. the length of time between event repetitions varies). Therefore, we distinguish between periodic and aperiodic frequencies. In the SI system, periodic frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) or multiples of hertz, while aperiodic frequency is measured in becquerel (Bq).
-1
T-1 or N1T-1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Frequency
0
0
Hertz (Hz) or Inverse second time (s^-1)
0
Frequency
Space and Time
-2
Equivalent dose or radiation dosage is a dose quantity used in radiological protection to represent the stochastic health effects (probability of cancer induction and genetic damage) of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. It is based on the physical quantity absorbed dose, but takes into account the biological effectiveness of the radiation, which is dependent on the radiation type and energy. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorbed_dose]
0
QUDT
0
0
2
Absorbed dose, does equivalent, and specific energy all have the same dimensionality.
0
Dose equivalent
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#DoseEquivalent
L2T-2
0
Sievert (Sv)
Radiology
-1
3
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#LuminousEfficacyUnit
0
Photometry
Luminous Efficacy is the ratio of luminous flux (in lumens) to power (usually measured in watts). Depending on context, the power can be either the radiant flux of the source's output, or it can be the total electric power consumed by the source.
1
QUDT
0
0
Luminous efficacy
U1L-2M-1T3J1
-2
Lumen per Watt
0
Polarizability is the relative tendency of a charge distribution, like the electron cloud of an atom or molecule, to be distorted from its normal shape by an external electric field, which may be caused by the presence of a nearby ion or dipole. The electronic polarizability ? is defined as the ratio of the induced dipole moment of an atom to the electric field that produces this dipole moment. Polarizability is often a scalar valued quantity, however in the general case it is tensor-valued.
M-1T4I2
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Polarizability>
0
0
-1
4
2
0
QUDT
Polarizability
Square Coulomb Meter per Joule
Electricity and Magnetism
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Polarizability
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversemagneticflux
0
1
Has identical dimensionality to electric current per unit energy
Inverse magnetic flux
L-2M-1T2I1
0
2
0
QUDT
Electricity and Magnetism
Hertz per Volt (Hz/V)
-2
-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalchargelinedensity
0
0
The linear charge density is the amount of electric charge in a line. It is measured in coulombs per metre (C/m). Since there are positive as well as negative charges, the charge density can take on negative values. [Wikipedia]
Electrical charge line density
-1
QUDT
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
L-1T1I1
1
1
Coulomb per meter (C/m)
Specific radioactivity
M-1T-1
0
CUAHSI
Quantum Mechanics
http://dbpedia.org/page/Specific_activity
-1
0
Specific activity is the activity per mass quantity of a radionuclide and is a physical property of that radionuclide. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_activity]
0
0
0
-1
Becquerels per gram (Bq/g)
Currency
Financial
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Currency
0
0
QUDT
0
0
Conversions in this unit need access to the latest financial data.
United States Dollar
A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation. [Wikipedia; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency]
0
0
0
-2
1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Forceperlength
0
Newton per meter (N/m)
The amount of force applied per unit length. Frequenty used for surface tension.
0
0
0
M1T-2
QUDT
Force per length
Has the same dimensionality as energy per area.
Mechanics
Mechanics
0
-1
0
2
QUDT
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inverseenergy
per Joule
L-2M-1T2
Inverse energy
0
-2
Magnetic flux
0
Electricity and Magnetism
L2M1T-2I-1
Weber (Wb)
-2
Magnetic Flux is the product of the average magnetic field times the perpendicular area that it penetrates.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Magneticflux
0
QUDT
0
2
1
-1
CUAHSI
0
0
relative fluorescence units (RFU)
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
U1
Fluorescence
0
0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence
Dimensionless
0
1
0
QUDT
1
0
0
0
Lumen Second (lm s)
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#LuminousEnergyUnit
1
Photometry
In photometry, luminous energy is the perceived energy of light. This is sometimes called the quantity of light. Luminous energy is not the same as radiant energy, the corresponding objective physical quantity. This is because the human eye can only see light in the visible spectrum and has different sensitivities to light of different wavelengths within the spectrum. When adapted for bright conditions (photopic vision), the eye is most sensitive to light at a wavelength of 555 nm. Light with a given amount of radiant energy will have more luminous energy if the wavelength is 555 nm than if the wavelength is longer or shorter. Light whose wavelength is well outside the visible spectrum has a luminous energy of zero, regardless of the amount of radiant energy present.
U1T1J1
0
Luminous Energy
Electricity and Magnetism
L3M1I-2
0
3
Electrical resistivity
Wikipedia
1
0
0
-2
0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electric charge. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ? (rho). The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm?metre (??m)[1][2][3] although other units like ohm?centimetre (??cm) are also in use. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity]
Ohm metres (Ohm m)
L-3T1I1
Coulomb per cubic meter (C/m^3)
0
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of electric charge per unit volume of space, in one, two or three dimensions. More specifically: the linear, surface, or volume charge density is the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume, respectively. The respective SI units are C·m?1, C·m?2 or C·m?3.
-3
1
1
Also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charge_density
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalchargevolumedensity
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
0
Electrical charge volume density
Joule per kilogram (J/kg); Gray (Gy); Sievert (Sv)
0
-2
0
Absorbed dose, does equivalent, and specific energy all have the same dimensionality.
Specific energy is energy per unit mass. (It is also sometimes called "energy density," though "energy density" more precisely means energy per unit volume.) The SI unit for specific energy is the joule per kilogram (J/kg). Other units still in use in some contexts are the kilocalorie per gram (Cal/g or kcal/g), mostly in food-related topics, watt hours per kilogram in the field of batteries, and the Imperial unit BTU per pound (BTU/lb), in some engineering and applied technical fields.
Specific energy
0
Mechanics
0
L2T-2
2
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Specificenergy
QUDT
0
0
1
U1
QUDT
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Turbidity
0
Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU)
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid, or of air, caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. Turbidity in open water is often caused by phytoplankton and the measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. The higher the turbidity, the higher the risk of the drinkers developing gastrointestinal diseases, especially for immune-compromised people, because contaminants like virus or bacteria can become attached to the suspended solid. The suspended solids interfere with water disinfection with chlorine because the particles act as shields for the virus and bacteria. Similarly suspended solids can protect bacteria from UV sterilisation of water. Fluids can contain suspended solid matter consisting of particles of many different sizes. While some suspended material will be large enough and heavy enough to settle rapidly to the bottom container if a liquid sample is left to stand (the settleable solids), very small particles will settle only very slowly or not at all if the sample is regularly agitated or the particles are colloidal. These small solid particles cause the liquid to appear turbid.
Chemistry
0
Turbidity
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Linearacceleration
0
0
Meter per second squared (m/s^2)
1
0
QUDT
0
Linear acceleration
Linear acceleration, in physics, is the rate at which the velocity of an object changes over time. Velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, with magnitude and direction that add according to the parallelogram law. The SI unit for acceleration is the metre per second squared (m/s2).
Same dimensionality as Thrust to mass ratio
Mechanics
-2
L1T-2
0
0
-1
Specific heat at a constant pressure.
Joule per kilogram kelvin per pascal (J/(km-K-Pa))
0
-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Specificheatpressure
3
Thermodynamics
L3M-1?-1
Specific heat pressure
0
QUDT
Molar conductivity is defined as the conductivity of an electrolyte solution divided by the molar concentration of the electrolyte, and so measures the efficiency with which a given electrolyte conducts electricity in solution. Its units are siemens per meter per molarity, or siemens meter-squared per mole. The usual symbol is a capital lambda, ?, or ?m. Or Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the volume (V) of the solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section (A) and at a distance of unit length. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molar_conductivity]
Siemen Square Meter per Mole (Sm^2/mol)
0
M-1I2N-1
0
0
-1
0
Molar conductivity
-1
Aquarius
Chemistry
2
Chemistry
0
0
0
Percent (%)
0
0
0
0
Concentration percent saturation
The amount of a substance dissolved in a solution compared with the amount dissolved in the solution at saturation concentration, expressed as a percent.
-3
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#ElectricFieldStrengthUnit
Volt per Meter (V/m) or Newton per coulomb (N/C)
1
L1M1T-3I-1
0
0
QUDT
1
Electricity and Magnetism
Electrical field strength
-1
0
The strength of the electric field at a given point is defined as the force that would be exerted on a positive test charge of +1 coulomb placed at that point; the direction of the field is given by the direction of that force. Electric fields contain electrical energy with energy density proportional to the square of the field intensity. The electric field is to charge as gravitational acceleration is to mass and force density is to volume.
1
QUDT
-1
Linear thermal expansion
0
When the temperature of a substance changes, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. When the stored energy increases, so does the length of the molecular bonds. As a result, solids typically expand in response to heating and contract on cooling; this dimensional response to temperature change is expressed by its coefficient of thermal expansion. Different coefficients of thermal expansion can be defined for a substance depending on whether the expansion is measured by: * linear thermal expansion * area thermal expansion * volumetric thermal expansion These characteristics are closely related. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be defined for both liquids and solids. The linear thermal expansion can only be defined for solids, and is common in engineering applications. Some substances expand when cooled, such as freezing water, so they have negative thermal expansion coefficients. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_expansion]
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Linearthermalexpansion
Thermodynamics
0
0
0
Meter per kelvin (m/K)
L1?-1
QUDT
L3M1T-2N-1
0
Chemistry
0
-1
3
1
-2
Length molar energy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Lengthmolarenergy
Joule meter per mole
0
0
0
0
QUDT
0
U-1I1
1
-1
Electrical current per angle
0
Ampere per radian (A/rad)
Electricity and Magnetism
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalcurrentperangle
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AngularAcceleration
Radian per second squared (rad/s^2)
U1T-2
Space and Time
1
QUDT
-2
0
0
Angular acceleration
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity over time. Measurement of the change made in the rate of change of an angle that a spinning object undergoes per unit time. It is a vector quantity. Also called Rotational acceleration. In SI units, it is measured in radians per second squared (rad/s^2), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter alpha.
0
0
QUDT
1
-3
U-1L4M1T-3
Watt Square Meter per Steradian
4
1
Mechanics
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#PowerAreaPerSolidAngle
0
Power area per solid angle
0
0
0
-2
0
Electricity and Magnetism
4
10
-3
Quartic electrical dipole moment per cubic energy
Quartic Coulomb Meter per Cubic Joule (C^4 m^4 J^-3)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#QuarticElectricDipoleMomentPerCubicEnergy
L-2M-3T10I4
QUDT
0
2
0
-1
1
-2
0
Chemistry
The amount of energy per mole of substance
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#MolarEnergyUnit
Molar energy
0
L2M1T-2N-1
Joule per mole (J/mol)
QUDT
1
Potential vorticity
Fluid Mechanics
Meter squared Kelvin per kilogram per second
2
L2M-1T-1?1
0
0
-1
Potential vorticity (PV) is a quantity which is proportional to the dot product of vorticity and stratification that, following a parcel of air or water, can only be changed by diabatic or frictional processes. It is a useful concept for understanding the generation of vorticity in cyclogenesis (the birth and development of a cyclone), especially along the polar front, and in analyzing flow in the ocean. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potential_vorticity]
0
-1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Potential_vorticity
UDUnits
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#MassAmountOfSubstance
1
0
QUDT
Mass count
0
0
M1N1
1
kilogram mole (kg*mol)
0
Chemistry
0
Has identical dimensionality to pressure or stress
0
-1
Joule per cubic meter (J/m^3)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Energydensity
1
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy.
Energy density
0
Mechanics
L-1M1T-2
0
-2
QUDT
0
The magnetic field strength, H (also called magnetic field intensity, magnetizing field, or magnetic field), characterizes how the true Magnetic Field B influences the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium.
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#MagneticFieldStrengthUnit
1
-1
0
0
0
Ampere Turn per Meter (At/m) or Ampere per meter (A/m)
L-1I1
Electricity and Magnetism
Magnetic field strength
QUDT
0
0
QUDT
-2
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Volumetricheatcapacity
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).
Joule per cubic meter kelvin (J/(m^3 K))
L-1M1T-2?-1
1
-1
Volumetric heat capacity
-1
0
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
QUDT
-1
The specific heat capacity, often simply called specific heat, is the heat capacity per unit mass of a material. It is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a certain mass 1 degree Celsius.
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Specificheatcapacity
Specific heat capacity
0
0
2
Joule per kilogram kelvin (J/(kg-K))
0
-2
L2T-2?-1
0
Uses units that are similar, if not identical, to catalytic activity. Both have the same dimensionality.
0
Number per second (#/s)
0
-1
0
T-1N1
Particle loading
CUAHSI
1
The number of particles, organisms, or moles of substance appearing in a given amount of time.
Chemistry
0
U1L2
Area angle
0
2
Square meter steradian (m^2-sr)
Space and Time
1
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AreaAngle
QUDT
0
0
Space and Time
-3
L-3
0
Inverse volume
0
per cubic meter
0
This should only be used for quantities with a truly dimensionless numerator. For other concentrations and densities, use "Concentration count per volume."
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversevolume
0
0
QUDT
-1
T-1?1
QUDT
1
Kelvin per second (K/s)
0
Thermodynamics
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#TemperaturePerTime
0
0
Temperature per time
Space and Time
0
Inverse length
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inverselength
QUDT
per meter
0
The inverse of length - frequently used for absorption or attenuation coefficients and wave numbers. This can also be used to for extrinsic curvature where the unit 'diopter' is used.
0
L-1
This should not be used for linear densities, but only for quantities with a truly dimensionless numerator. For linear densities, use "Count per length"
-1
0
0
0
Magnetic permeability
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#PermeabilityUnit
Henry per meter (H/m)
Electricity and Magnetism
1
-2
QUDT
L1M1T-2I-2
Permeability is the degree of magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. In general permeability is a tensor-valued quantity.
-2
0
0
1
0
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
Electric current density is a measure of the density of flow of electric charge; it is the electric current per unit area of cross section. Electric current density is a vector-valued quantity.
0
L-2I1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalcurrentdensity
-2
0
Electrical current density
1
Ampere per square meter (A/m^2)
The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal resistivity, measured in kelvin-metres per watt (K*m/W). Also called Specific Thermal Resistance.
-1
1
0
Meter Kelvin per watt (K-m/W)
0
Thermal resistivity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Thermalresistivity
0
-1
3
L-1M-1T3?1
QUDT
Thermodynamics
0
N1N-1
0
Dimensionless Ratio
0
0
Concentration count per count
0
New for ODM2
0
0
mole per mole
The count of one substance per unit count of another substance, also known as mole fraction or numeric concentration.
A unit that does not belong in any of the other groups. These units have dimensionality, but are generally strangely compounded or calculated
0
Catch-all for units I don't know how to deal with
Dimensionless
Other
0
0
New for ODM2
0
0
0
0
M1
kilogram (kg)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Mass
In physics, mass is a property of a physical body which determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies, its resistance to being accelerated by a force, and in the theory of relativity gives the mass–energy content of a system. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).
Base Quantity
0
0
0
0
0
QUDT
0
Mass
1
Fluidity
1
0
0
UDUnits
ftp://ftp.unidata.ucar.edu/pub/udunits/
L1M-1T1
Fluid Mechanics
0
-1
0
Per Pascal Second (1/Pa·s)
The reciprocal of viscosity is fluidity, usually symbolized by ? = 1 / ? or F = 1 / ?, depending on the convention used, measured in reciprocal poise (cm·s·g?1), sometimes called the rhe. Fluidity is seldom used in engineering practice. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity]
1
0
U1T-1
Bits per Second (pbs)
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#DataRateUnit
-1
Information
1
Data rate
0
0
0
The frequency derived from the period of time required to transmit one bit. This represents the amount of data transferred per second by a communications channel or a computing or storage device. Data rate is measured in units of bits per second (written "b/s" or "bps"), bytes per second (Bps), or baud. When applied to data rate, the multiplier prefixes "kilo-", "mega-", "giga-", etc. (and their abbreviations, "k", "M", "G", etc.) always denote powers of 1000. For example, 64 kbps is 64,000 bits per second. This contrasts with units of storage which use different prefixes to denote multiplication by powers of 1024, e.g. 1 kibibit = 1024 bits.
QUDT
0
0
Electrical conductivity
-3
0
L-3M-1T3I2
-1
Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the Greek letter ? (sigma), but ? (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or ? (gamma) are also occasionally used. Its SI unit is siemens per metre (S/m) and CGSE unit is reciprocal second (s?1). [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity]
microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm)
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity
3
Wikipedia
Electricity and Magnetism
2
0
A type of Linear Density.
0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Linear_density
0
Area per length
L2L-1
Aquarius
1
0
Space and Time
meters squared per meter (m^2/m)
0
0
0
1
-4
0
0
L1T-4
In physics, jounce or snap is the fourth derivative of the position vector with respect to time, with the first, second, and third derivatives being velocity, acceleration, and jerk, respectively; hence, the jounce is the rate of change of the jerk with respect to time. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jounce]
Aquarius
0
Mechanics
Meters per quartic second (m/s^4)
0
0
Snap
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Lengthmass
0
Mechanics
0
0
0
Meter kilogram (m-kg)
QUDT
1
Length mass
L1M1
1
0
-2
0
0
Electricity and Magnetism
-2
Henry (H)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inductance
QUDT
1
Inductance
0
L2M1T-2I-2
Inductance is an electromagentic quantity that characterizes a circuit's resistance to any change of electric current; a change in the electric current through induces an opposing electromotive force (EMF). Quantitatively, inductance is proportional to the magnetic flux per unit of electric current.
2
QUDT
1
The amount of electrical charge within a given count of something.
0
1
Coulomb per mole (C/mol)
Electricity and Magnetism
0
0
-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electricalchargepercount
T1I1N-1
Electrical charge per count
0
Energy
In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed. Energy, work, and heat all have identical units.
0
Space and Time
-2
2
QUDT
1
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#EnergyAndWorkUnit
0
Has the same dimensionality as torque
0
L2M1T-2
Joule (J)
Volumetric productivity
1
In ecology, productivity or production refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. It is usually expressed in units of mass per unit surface (or volume) per unit time, for instance grams per square metre per day (g m?2 d?1). The mass unit may relate to dry matter or to the mass of carbon generated. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that of heterotrophs such as animals is called secondary productivity. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_%28ecology%29]
0
Kilograms per cubic meter per second
Chemistry
-1
0
-3
L-3M1T-1
CUAHSI
0
0
Velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object, equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion.Velocity is an important concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of bodies.Velocity is a vector physical quantity; both magnitude and direction are required to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is called "speed", a quantity that is measured in metres per second (m/s or m·s?1) in the SI (metric) system.
This has the same dimensionality as volumetric flux, but is expressed differently.
L1T-1
Mechanics
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Linearvelocity
Meter per second (m/s)
0
0
-1
Linear velocity
0
0
QUDT
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Activity
Quantum Mechanics
0
QUDT
0
-1
Radioactivity
0
T-1
Activity is the term used to characterise the number of nuclei which disintegrate in a radioactive substance per unit time. Activity is usually measured in Becquerels (Bq), where 1 Bq is 1 disintegration per second.
0
Becquerel (Bq)
0
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and in chemistry it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q is often used to denote charge. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_charge]
Coulomb (C)
Electrical charge
Electricity and Magnetism
0
1
1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ElectricCharge
T1I1
0
0
QUDT
QUDT
0
0
0
3
0
Space and Time
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#LiquidVolume
This includes dry, liquid, and gas volumes.
0
Volume
L3
Cubic Meter (m^3)
Watt per square meter (W/m^2)
A general term for heat flow rate per unit area, power per unit area, irradiance, radient emmitance, and radiosity. All these terms are sometimes referred to as "intensity."
0
QUDT
0
0
M1T-3
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Powerperarea
Mechanics
0
0
-3
Power per area
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AbsorbedDose
0
2
0
0
QUDT
0
Radiology
Gray (Gy)
-2
Absorbed dose, does equivalent, and specific energy all have the same dimensionality.
Absorbed dose (also known as Total Ionizing Dose, TID) is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation. It is equal to the energy deposited per unit mass of medium, and so has the unit J/kg, which is given the special name Gray (Gy). Note that the absorbed dose is not a good indicator of the likely biological effect. 1 Gy of alpha radiation would be much more biologically damaging than 1 Gy of photon radiation for example. Appropriate weighting factors can be applied reflecting the different relative biological effects to find the equivalent dose. The risk of stoctic effects due to radiation exposure can be quantified using the effective dose, which is a weighted average of the equivalent dose to each organ depending upon its radiosensitivity. When ionising radiation is used to treat cancer, the doctor will usually prescribe the radiotherapy treatment in Gy. When risk from ionising radiation is being discussed, a related unit, the Sievert is used.
0
L2T-2
Absorbed dose
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#MolarMass
M1N-1
kilogram per mol (kg/mol)
0
Molar mass
0
QUDT
1
0
0
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Molar_mass>
-1
0
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by its amount of substance. The base SI unit for molar mass is kg/mol. However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molar_mass]
Chemistry
Amount of substance or a count/number of items per unit volume. Concentration impliles the amount of one substance/item within another substance.
0
0
L-3N1
0
Mole per cubic meter (mol/m^3) or per cubic meter (1/m^3)
Concentration count per volume
QUDT
-3
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AmountOfSubstancePerUnitVolume
1
Distinct from inverse volume in that there is something specific being counted within each unit volume. Inverse volume implies a truly dimensionless numerator.
Chemistry
0
0
Mass per area
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Massperarea
0
0
QUDT
0
Chemistry
-2
L-2M1
1
Kilogram per square meter (kg/m^2)
Has same dimensionality as length integrated mass concentration
0
Aquarius
L-1N1
0
1
0
0
-1
Count per meter (#/m)
Space and Time
0
The length density of a given amount of a substance. This unit group is also used for image and TV resolutions measured in lines. This is distinct from "inverse length" in that there is something specific being counted per unit length, that is, the numerator is not dimensionless.
Count per length
0
L2M-1
0
0
-1
Specific surface area "SSA" is a property of solids which is the total surface area of a material per unit of mass. It is a derived scientific value that can be used to determine the type and properties of a material (e.g. soil, snow). It is defined by surface area divided by mass (with units of m²/kg).
Mechanics
0
Wikipedia
Meters squared per kilogram (m²/kg)
http://dbpedia.org/page/Specific_surface_area
0
0
2
Specific surface area
0
Power per electrical charge
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#PowerPerElectricCharge
-4
-1
L2M1T-4I-1
1
0
2
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
0
Volt per Second
1
1
0
1
Meter Second Kelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Lengthtemperaturetime
0
Thermodynamics
L1T1?1
Length temperature time
0
0
QUDT
Photometry
0
Candela per square meter (cd/m^2)
0
QUDT
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.
0
-2
0
0
L-2J1
Luminance
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Luminance
U1
pH
0
0
http://environment.data.gov.au/def/unit/pH
Chemistry
0
pH
1
In chemistry, pH (/pi??e?t?/) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. It is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline or basic. Pure water is neutral, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH]
0
0
0
QUDT-WQ
Molar heat capacity
Thermodynamics
QUDT
The molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit amount of a pure substance. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity]
0
1
-1
0
-2
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#MolarHeatCapacityUnit
Joule per mole kelvin (J/(mol-K))
2
-1
L2M1T-2?-1N-1
L-2M-1T4I2
-1
-2
0
Farad (F)
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
2
Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
0
0
4
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Capacitance
Electrical capacitance
Linear energy transfer
-2
1
0
Linear energy transfer (LET) is a term used in dosimetry. It describes the action of radiation upon matter. It is identical to the retarding force acting on a charged ionizing particle travelling through the matter. It describes how much energy an ionising particle transfers to the material transversed per unit distance. By definition, LET is a positive quantity. LET depends on the nature of the radiation as well as on the material traversed. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_energy_transfer]
1
Atomic Physics
Joules per meter (J/m)
L1M1T-2
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#LinearEnergyTransfer
Has identical dimensionality to force, but is generally expressed differently. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_energy_transfer
0
QUDT
0
0
QUDT
0
-2
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Illuminance
1
0
U1L-2J1
Illuminance
Illuminance (also know as luminous emittance or luminous flux per area), is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception.
Lux (lx); Lumen per square meter (lm/m^2)
Photometry
0
0
Thrust to mass ratio
Same dimensionality as linear accelleration
-2
0
0
L1T-2
0
1
QUDT
Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that indicates the performance of the engine or vehicle. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrust-to-weight_ratio]
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ThrustToMassRatio
Mechanics
0
Newton per kilogram (N/kg)
-1
QUDT
Angular velocity or frequency
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AngularVelocity
The change of angle per unit time; specifically, in celestial mechanics, the change in angle of the radius vector per unit time. Angular frequency is a scalar measure of rotation rate. It is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity.
Angular frequency uses the same units as that of angular velocity.
0
U1T-1
Radian per second (rad/s)
0
Space and Time
1
0
QUDT
Electricity and Magnetism
2
-2
Siemens (S)
-1
L-2M-1T3I2
Electrical conductance
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#ConductanceUnit
0
Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance and is different from conductivitiy (specific conductance). Conductance is the ease with which an electric current passes through a conductor. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (?), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S). [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistance_and_conductance]
3
0
Kilogram Meter Per Second (kg-m/s)
1
0
L1M1T-1
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Linearmomentum
-1
0
0
Linear momentum
In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
1
Mechanics
0
Mechanics
0
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AngularMomentum
0
1
-1
0
Angular momentum
2
Quantity of rotational motion. Linear momentum is the quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of a body by its linear velocity. Angular momentum is the quantity obtained by multiplying the moment of inertia of a body by its angular velocity. The momentum of a system of particles is given by the sum of the momenta of the individual particles which make up the system or by the product of the total mass of the system and the velocity of the center of gravity of the system. The momentum of a continuous medium is given by the integral of the velocity over the mass of the medium or by the product of the total mass of the medium and the velocity of the center of gravity of the medium. In physics, the angular momentum of an object rotating about some reference point is the measure of the extent to which the object will continue to rotate about that point unless acted upon by an external torque. In particular, if a point mass rotates about an axis, then the angular momentum with respect to a point on the axis is related to the mass of the object, the velocity and the distance of the mass to the axis. While the motion associated with linear momentum has no absolute frame of reference, the rotation associated with angular momentum is sometimes spoken of as being measured relative to the fixed stars. The physical quantity "action" has the same units as angular momentum.
0
Joule Second (J s)
L2M1T-1
0
new for ODM2
0
Dimensionless Ratio
The volume of one substance per unit volume of another substance. This is used for volume percents or the ppm of a gas mixture.
0
0
0
0
Concentration volume per volume
unitless
0
L3L-3
-2
0
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Specificheatvolume
L-1T-2?-1
Joule per kilogram kelvin per cubic meter (J/(kg-K-m^3))
0
0
0
-1
Thermodynamics
Specific heat per constant volume.
Specific heat volume
-1
0
Space and Time
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Area
QUDT
Area
0
Square meter (m^2)
0
0
0
2
0
L2
Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface, typically a region bounded by a closed curve.
-1
0
-2
Has identical dimensionality to energy density
Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area. Pressure is distinct from stress, as the former is the ratio of the component of force normal to a surface to the surface area. Stress is a tensor that relates the vector force to the vector area.
Pascal (Pa)
Space and Time
Pressure or stress
L-1M1T-2
0
1
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Pressureorstress
QUDT
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Torque
L2M1T-2
QUDT
Newton meter (N-m)
Torque
2
Has the same dimensionality as energy/work
0
0
1
-2
Mechanics
0
In physics, a torque (?) is a vector that measures the tendency of a force to rotate an object about some axis [1]. The magnitude of a torque is defined as force times its lever arm [2]. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. The SI unit for torque is newton meters (N m). In U.S. customary units, it is measured in foot pounds (ft lbf) (also known as 'pounds feet'). Mathematically, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product: ? = r x F where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum F is the force acting on the particles, or, more generally, torque can be defined as the rate of change of angular momentum, ? = dL/dt where L is the angular momentum vector t stands for time.
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversesquareenergy
L-4M-2T4
Inverse square energy
Mechanics
-2
-4
per square Joule (J-2)
0
QUDT
0
0
4
0
0
L2M1T-3I-1
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Electromotiveforce
-3
-1
Volt (V) = Joule per coulomb
Electricity and Magnetism
2
In physics, electromotive force, or most commonly emf (seldom capitalized), voltage, or (occasionally) electromotance is "that which tends to cause current (actual electrons and ions) to flow.". More formally, emf is the external work expended per unit of charge to produce an electric potential difference across two open-circuited terminals.[2][3] The electric potential difference is created by separating positive and negative charges, thereby generating an electric field.[4][5] The created electrical potential difference drives current flow if a circuit is attached to the source of emf. When current flows, however, the voltage across the terminals of the source of emf is no longer the open-circuit value, due to voltage drops inside the device due to its internal resistance. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromotive_force]
Electromotive force
QUDT
0
0
1
Meter kelvin (m-K)
0
0
Thermodynamics
0
Length temperature
QUDT
L1?1
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#LengthTemperatureUnit
1
In remote sensing, a satellite's resolution is defined as the size on the earth of the smallest individual component or dot (called a pixel) from which the image is constituted. This is also reffered to as the ground sample distance.
CUAHSI
0
1
Satellite resolution
Space and Time
-1
L1N-1
0
0
0
0
meter per pixel
QUDT
Watt per square meter steradian (W/(m^2-sr))
-1
0
0
1
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#RadianceUnit
Radiance
0
0
-3
U-1M1T-3
Radiology
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area. Radiance is used to characterize diffuse emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation, or to quantify emission of neutrinos and other particles. This is a directional quantity. Historically, radiance is called "intensity" and spectral radiance is called "specific intensity". [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiance]
2
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Heatcapacity
0
QUDT
1
Joule per kelvin (J/K)
-2
Heat capacity
-1
Thermodynamics
L2M1T-2?-1
Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change. The SI unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin and the dimensional form is L2MT?2??1. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity]
0
0
0
0
Square meter Kelvin per watt (K(m^2)/W)
-1
1
Thermal insulance
3
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Thermalinsulance
QUDT
Thermodynamics
0
0
M-1T3?1
The inverse of the heat transfer coefficient.
Space and Time
Aquarius
Count per area
0
0
The areal density of a given amount of a substance. This unit group is also used for pixel densities (often incorrectly called resolution).
0
0
L-2N1
0
Count per square meter (#/m^2)
-2
1
-3
-1
L-3T-1
New for ODM2
Radioactivity per volume
0
Quantum Mechanics
0
0
0
The amount of radioactivity per unit volume
Becquerels per meter cubed (Bq/m^3)
0
0
0
Mechanics
0
Mass per length
-1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Massperlength
1
L-1M1
Kilogram per meter (kg/m)
QUDT
0
0
1
QUDT
0
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Quadrupole>
1
Electrical quadrupole moment
0
0
2
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ElectricQuadrupoleMoment
The Electric Quadrupole Moment is a quantity which describes the effective shape of the ellipsoid of nuclear charge distribution. A non-zero quadrupole moment Q indicates that the charge distribution is not spherically symmetric. By convention, the value of Q is taken to be positive if the ellipsoid is prolate and negative if it is oblate. In general, the electric quadrupole moment is tensor-valued.
L2T1I1
Electricity and Magnetism
Coulomb square meter (C-m^2)
M1?1N1
0
Mass count temperature
1
0
1
Kilogram mole Kelvin (kg*mol*K)
QUDT
1
Chemistry
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#MassAmountOfSubstanceTemperature
3
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure. It is equal to the molar mass (M) divided by the mass density (?). [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molar_volume]
0
0
-1
Molar volume
L3N-1
0
New for ODM2
http://dbpedia.org/page/Molar_volume
Chemistry
0
cubic meters per mol (m^3/mol)
0
0
QUDT
1
Square meter second (m^2 s)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AreaTime
2
0
0
L2T1
0
Area time
0
Space and Time
L2?1
0
Thermodynamics
Area temperature
0
0
QUDT
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#AreaTemperatureUnit
Square meter kelvin (m^2-K)
1
0
2
0
QUDT
Pressure or stress rate
-3
Space and Time
Pascal per second (Pa/s)
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#PressureOrStressRateUnit
0
1
0
L-1M1T-3
-1
0
0
Hertz per Kelvin (Hz/K)
Thermodynamics
0
0
0
-1
-1
Inverse time temperature
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversetimetemperature
0
QUDT
0
T-1?-1
0
L3T-1
3
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Volumepertime
Volumetric flow rate
0
Cubic meter per second (m^3/s)
QUDT
0
-1
Mechanics
Volume Per Unit Time, or Volumetric flow rate, is the volume of fluid that passes through a given surface per unit of time (as opposed to a unit surface).
0
0
-1
2
0
0
L2T-1
0
Fluid Mechanics
Used for kinematic viscosity (also known as momentum diffusivity) and thermal diffusivity. The Kinematic Viscosity of a fluid is the dynamic viscosity divided by the fluid density. In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity (usually denoted ? but a, ?, and D are also used) is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant pressure. It measures the ability of a material to conduct thermal energy relative to its ability to store thermal energy.
Encompases both kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity
Diffusivity
0
Square meter per second (m^2/sec)
new for ODM2
second (s)
0
0
0
QUDT
T1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Time
Time is a basic component of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects.
0
Time
1
0
Base Quantity
0
-1
0
Tesla (T)
Magnetic flux density
Electricity and Magnetism
QUDT
0
0
-2
0
M1T-2I-1
The Magnetic flux density, B (also called magnetic induction or magnetic field), is a fundamental field in electrodynamics which characterizes the magnetic force exerted by electric currents. It is closely related to the auxillary magnetic field H.
1
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#MagneticFluxDensityUnit
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#PowerArea
L4M1T-3
-3
0
QUDT
0
0
0
Watt Square Meter
Power area
4
Mechanics
1
Base Quantity
0
J1
0
0
Luminous Intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. The weighting is determined by the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths.
0
0
0
Candela (cd)
Luminous intensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Luminousintensity
QUDT
0
unitless
0
Length fraction
0
0
Space and Time
0
The ratio or two lengths, often used to measure slope or scale.
0
CSN
0
L1L-1
0
0
L1M1T-2
1
-2
1
Newton (N)
Mechanics
0
Force
Force is an influence that causes mass to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. Force is defined by Newton's Second Law as F = m · a, where F is force, m is mass and a is acceleration. Net force is mathematically equal to the time rate of change of the momentum of the body on which it acts. Since momentum is a vector quantity (has both a magnitude and direction), force also is a vector quantity.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Force
0
QUDT
0
kilograms per meter cubed per meter
L-2M1
http://his.cuahsi.org/mastercvreg/edit_cv11.aspx?tbl=Units&id=1125579048
0
Length integrated mass concentration
CUAHSI
-2
0
0
Has same dimensionality as mass per unit area
Chemistry
0
0
1
A mass concentration per unit length. These units can be used to measure concentration inputs of a chemical along the length of a waterway.
0
0
U1
0
Hazen units (HU)
0
Color
Do not use conversions within this unit group!
0
0
1
CUAHSI
Dimensionless
Units used to describe hue and coloration.
1
Yank
0
0
Yank is the rate of change of force.
-3
Newtons per second (N/s)
L1M1T-3
Aquarius
0
Mechanics
0
1
0
0
Power
Mechanics
Watt (W)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Power
QUDT
L2M1T-3
0
1
Power is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. As a rate of change of work done or the energy of a subsystem, power is: P = W/t where P is power W is work t is time. Heat flow rate follows identical units to Power
2
-3
0
Mechanics
1
-3
Aquarius
0
In physics, jerk, also known as jolt, surge, or lurch, is the rate of change of acceleration; that is, the derivative of acceleration with respect to time, and as such the second derivative of velocity, or the third derivative of position. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerk_%28physics%29]
0
0
L1T-3
Meters per second cubed (m/s^3)
0
Jerk
0
Medical term - many specific arbitrary units based on different substances. Do not use conversions within this unit group!
0
0
0
Units used mainly in chemical and biochemical laboratories.
0
-1
0
Biological activity
Chemistry
http://dbpedia.org/page/Biological_activity
0
T-1
Wikipedia
T2
QUDT
0
Second time squared (s^2)
Time squared
0
Space and Time
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Timesquared
2
0
0
Temperature per magnetic flux density
M-1T2I1?1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#TemperaturePerMagneticFluxDensity
-1
0
1
QUDT
Thermodynamics
Kelvin per Tesla
2
1
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Magneticdipolemoment
1
QUDT
0
The magnetic moment of a system is a measure of the magnitude and the direction of its magnetism. Magnetic moment usually refers to its Magnetic Dipole Moment, and quantifies the contribution of the system's internal magnetism to the external dipolar magnetic field produced by the system (that is, the component of the external magnetic field that is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance to the observer). The Magnetic Dipole Moment is a vector-valued quantity.
0
0
0
L2I1
2
Joule per Tesla (J/T)
Magnetic dipole moment
0
Electricity and Magnetism
0
0
0
0
0
W*m-2
0
0
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_flux
Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface. The quantity is defined in two different ways, depending on the context. In the first context, it is the rate of energy transfer per unit area (SI units: W·m?2 = J·m?2·s?1). This is a vector quantity, its components being determined in terms of the normal (perpendicular) direction to the surface of measurement. This is sometimes called energy flux density, to distinguish it from the second definition. Radiative flux, heat flux, and sound energy flux are specific cases of energy flux density. In the second context, it is the total rate of energy transfer (SI units: W = J·s?1). This is sometimes informally called energy current.
Energy flux
Inverse count
0
Chemistry
0
QUDT
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#Inversecount
0
0
N-1
0
0
-1
Per mole (mol^(-1))
M1T-3?-1
0
0
Heat transfer Coefficient
Watt per square meter kelvin (W/(m^2-K))
1
0
0
-1
Thermodynamics
-3
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#CoefficientOfHeatTransfer
The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, in thermodynamics and in mechanics is the proportionality coefficient between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, ?T)
QUDT
Any unit or combination of units that has no dimensions. A Dimensionless Unit is a quantity for which all the exponents of the factors corresponding to the base quantities in its quantity dimension are zero.
U1
1
Dimensionless
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#DimensionlessUnit
0
unitless
QUDT
0
Dimensionless
0
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#ElectricCurrent
An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma. The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_current]
0
0
QUDT
Electrical current
ampere (A) = Coulombs per second
0
0
0
Base Quantity
0
I1
1
0
Chemistry
QUDT
Mass per electrical charge
1
Tesla Second (T s)
0
0
M1T-1I-1
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#MassPerElectricCharge
-1
0
Square meter per kelvin (m^2/K)
2
Area thermal expansion
0
QUDT
0
L2?-1
Thermodynamics
When the temperature of a substance changes, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. When the stored energy increases, so does the length of the molecular bonds. As a result, solids typically expand in response to heating and contract on cooling; this dimensional response to temperature change is expressed by its coefficient of thermal expansion. Different coefficients of thermal expansion can be defined for a substance depending on whether the expansion is measured by: * linear thermal expansion * area thermal expansion * volumetric thermal expansion These characteristics are closely related. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be defined for both liquids and solids. The linear thermal expansion can only be defined for solids, and is common in engineering applications. Some substances expand when cooled, such as freezing water, so they have negative thermal expansion coefficients. [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_expansion]
-1
0
0
0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantity#AreaThermalExpansion